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迷信家们若何能确认新冠病毒并不是尝试室产品?

  从疫情迸发至今,固然天下各地的迷信家们都重复夸大这类初度被发明的病毒根源于天然界,可是“新冠病毒是尝试室产品”的诡计论仍然无休无止。

  那末,迷信家们究竟是若何晓得病毒并不是来自尝试室,而是来源于某种植物的呢?

  威斯敏斯特大学一名寄生虫学与医学微生物学讲师,Polly Hayes,本周宣布的一篇文章,援用多项研讨对这个成绩作出理解释。

  The conspiracy theory that the novel coronavirus was created in a lab has been circulating since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, although scientists from different countries have refuted it over and again and stressed the natural origin of the virus。

  So how exactly do scientists know the virus SARS-CoV-2 originated from an animal, most likely a bat, and was not lab-made?

  Polly Hayes, a lecturer in Parasitology and Medical Microbiology at the University of Westminster, explained the question in an article published on British website The Conversation earlier this week, citing multiple studies。

  基因物资里并无报酬把持的迹象

  No signs of manipulation in the genetic material of SARS-CoV-2

  Hayes指出,假如病毒来自尝试室里的基因工程,那末它的基因序列数据必定存在报酬把持的迹象

  可是,新冠病毒的基因序列已被全球的迷信家地下分享了数千次,并且从未发明过如许的证据。

  Hayes pointed out that if the virus had been genetically engineered in a lab, there would be signs of manipulation in the genome data。

  This would include evidence of an existing viral sequence as the backbone for the new virus, and obvious targeted inserted (or deleted) genetic elements。

  But the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2 has been publicly shared thousands of times by scientists all over the world, and no such evidence has ever been found。

  She added that it is very unlikely that any techniques used to genetically engineer the virus would not leave a genetic signature, like specific identifiable pieces of DNA code。

  从家养型的冠状病毒退化而来

  SARS-CoV-2 evolved from a previous wild coronavirus

  新冠病毒的基因序列与其余在蝙蝠和穿山甲身上发明的冠状病毒基因序列类似,不止如斯,这些基因序列之间的差别表现了冠状病毒退化的天然形式。

  The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is similar to that of other bat coronaviruses, as well as those of pangolins, all of which have a similar overall genomic architecture。

  What‘s more, differences between the genomes of these coronaviruses show natural patterns typical of coronavirus evolution, which suggests that SARS-CoV-2 evolved from a previous wild coronavirus。

  与武汉病毒研讨所发明的蝙蝠病毒在退化上有明显差别

  SARS-CoV-2 and a bat virus in Wuhan lab significantly different in evolutionary terms 

  一些媒体报导说,新冠病毒能够来自武汉病毒研讨所的研讨职员发明的另外一种已知的蝙蝠病毒(RaTG13),由于这两种病毒的基因序列类似性高达96%。但Hayes廓清说,从退化的角度来看,它们实践上有明显差别。

  Some media reports have said that SARS-CoV-2 may come from another known bat virus (RaTG13) found by researchers at the Wuhan Institute of Virology, since the genomes of the two viruses were 96 percent similar to one another。

  But Hayes clarified that in evolutionary terms, this actually makes them significantly different and the two have been shown to share a co妹妹on ancestor。 That means RaGT13 is not an ancestor of SARS-CoV-2。 

  与其余冠状病毒有类似特征

  SARS-CoV-2 shared similar features with related coronaviruses

  新型冠状病毒传染人体细胞的关头在于冠状病毒的刺突糖卵白与人体ACE2 卵白的分离,可是,其余相似的冠状病毒都具备类似的特点。而新冠病毒的刺突糖卵白与人体细胞的分离服从之高,经过基因工程没法到达,只要天然挑选才干完成。

  One of the key features that makes SARS-CoV-2 different from the other coronaviruses is a particular “spike” protein that binds well with another protein on the outside of human cells called ACE2。 This enables the virus to hook into and infect a variety of human cells。

  However, other related coronaviruses do have similar features, providing evidence that they have evolved naturally rather than being artificially added in a lab。 

  大少数流行症和一切已知的冠状病毒的根源是植物

  The majority of infectious diseases and all known coronaviruses have animal origins

  据估量,人类已知的流行症中有60%根源于植物,在一切新发或再发疾病中这个比例到达75%。

  新冠病毒是人类发明的七种冠状病毒中最新的一种,而它们局部来自蝙蝠,小鼠或其余牲畜。

  An estimated 60 percent of known infectious diseases and 75 percent of all new, emerging, or re-emerging diseases in humans have animal origins。

  SARS-CoV-2 is the newest of seven coronaviruses found in humans, all of which came from animals, either from bats, mice or domestic animals。

  The mixing or “recombination” of distinct coronavirus genomes in nature is one of the mechanisms that bring about novel coronaviruses。 There is now further evidence that this process could be involved in the generation of SARS-CoV-2。

  最有能够来自蝙蝠

  SARS-CoV-2 most likely originated from bats

  实践上,新冠病毒最有能够是由一种病毒变异体退化而来,该变异体没法长期存活或埋伏于蝙蝠体内。

  偶合的是,它退化出了入侵人类细胞的才能,而后能够是经过两头的植物宿主偶尔取得了进入人类社会的道路,得以繁殖传达。

  In fact, SARS-CoV-2 most likely evolved from a viral variant that couldn‘t survive for a long period of time or that persists at low levels in bats。

  Coincidentally, it evolved the ability to invade human cells and accidentally found its way into humans, possibly by means of an intermediate animal host, where it then thrived。

  Or an initially harmless form of the virus might have jumped directly into humans and then evolved to become harmful as it passed between people。

  Bats were also the source of the viruses causing Ebola, rabies, Nipah and Hendra virus infections, Marburg virus disease, and strains of Influenza A virus。

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